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Citrus aurantium L. has been used as a traditional medicine worldwide for a very long time. Different parts of this plant offer valuable benefits to mankind. This study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition of essential oil from the leaves and peel of Somsa (C. aurantium L.) sampled from Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand and to evaluate their antioxidant activity against the free radical ABTS (2,2–Azino–Bis–3 Ethylbenzthiazoline– 6 Sulphonic Acid) and DPPH (2,2 Diphenyl–1– Picrylhydrazyl). Essential oil was extracted from the leaves and peel by hydro–distillation. Chemical composition of the extracted oil was then analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and MS inert mass selective detector for characterization of the essential oils. Antioxidant activity of oil extracts from C. aurantium L. leaves and peel was analyzed by ABTS and DPPH assays. Twenty eight (28) different compounds were identified in essential oil from leaves representing 99.03% and peel representing 93.61% of total oil content. The main components of the oil extracted from leaves include 1,8 Cineole (38.45%), Sabinene (15.88%), Linalool L (11.47%), ɑ - terpineol (8.63%) and Ocimene (6.88%). On the other hand, beta– myrcene (21.7%), Octanal (9.63%), ɑ - pinene (8.42%), Germacrene – D (6.92%) and ɑ - terpineol (6.31%) were identified as the major components in the peel oil. Antioxidant activity (inhibitory percentage) of essential oil from the leaves in DPPH assay (38.28%) and ABTS assay (18.58%) was higher compared to that of the peel oil (16.09% and 11.84%, respectively). Essential oils from both parts (leaves and peel) were more effective in DPPH assay than the ABTS assay.
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