A Theoretical Concept of Business Sustainability of Community-Based Tourism in Thailand: A Social Enterprise Perspective

Main Article Content

Kanjana Sommit Bussaba Sitikarn

Abstract

This paperpresents the integration between social enterprise (SE) concepts and community-based tourism (CBT) conceptsin designating key success factors that create business sustainability of CBT communities in Thailand. By analyzing and synthesizing related literature, three main concepts including 1) CBT-SE key success factors, 2) organizational change theoriesand 4) business sustainability are found able to be integrated in practice. Based on the thematic analysis, the study reveals six key success factors: 1) Enterprise Orientation, 2) Stakeholder Participation and Ownership, 3) Strategic Alliances and Network with Others, 4) Capacities development, 5) Authenticity and Identity, 6) Leadership, that are compatible. The analysis of changes resulted from those key success factors includes the following aspects: 1) Evolutionary, 2) Teleological, 3) Life cycle, 4) Political, 5) Social cognition, and 6) Cultural.


บทความนี้นำเสนอการบูรณาการระหว่างแนวคิดกิจการเพื่อสังคม และ แนวคิดการท่องเที่ยวโดยชุมชนเพื่อกำหนดปัจจัยความสำเร็จในการสร้างความยั่งยืนทางธุรกิจของการท่องเที่ยวโดยชุมชนในประเทศไทย โดยดำเนินการวิเคราะห์และสังเคราะห์วรรณกรรมที่เกี่ยวข้อง พบว่ามีแนวคิดที่สามารถนำมา บูรณาการกันได้ในทางปฏิบัติได้แก่ ได้แก่ 1) แนวคิดปัจจัยแห่งความสำเร็จของการท่องเที่ยวโดยชุมชนและกิจการเพื่อสังคม 2) ทฤษฎีการเปลี่ยนแปลงองค์การ และ 3) แนวคิดความยั่งยืนทางธุรกิจ จากการจำแนก และแบ่งกลุ่มข้อมูล (Thematic Analysis) พบว่าปัจจัยแห่งความสำเร็จของการท่องเที่ยวโดยชุมชน-กิจการ เพื่อสังคมที่สอดคล้องไปในทิศทางเดียวกัน จำแนกเป็น 6 ปัจจัย ได้แก่ 1) การมุ่งการประกอบการ 2) การมีส่วนร่วมในการบริหารจัดการและการเป็นเจ้าของธุรกิจของภาคีการท่องเที่ยว 3) การร่วมมือ พันธมิตร และเครือข่าย 4) การพัฒนาศักยภาพชุมชนท่องเที่ยว 5) การเป็นของแท้และความมีอัตลักษณ์ 6) การเป็นผู้นำ ทั้งนี้ในการวิเคราะห์การเปลี่ยนแปลงอันเนื่องมาจากปัจจัยความสำเร็จดังกล่าวข้างต้นประกอบด้วยประเด็น  วิวัฒนาการ(Evolutionary)  เหตุผลเชิงอันตวิทยา (Teleological)วงจรชีวิต (Life Cycle)การเมือง (Political)ความรู้ความเข้าใจทางสังคม (social cognition)และวัฒนธรรม (cultural)

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References

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in developing Community Based Tourism. Sheffield Business School Research
Institute.
Boonratana, R. (2010). “Community-based tourism in Thailand: The need and justification
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and the necessity for dynamic concepts of culture and power. ASEAS: Austrian
Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 4(1), 129–138.
Dyllick T., Hockerts K. (2002). Beyond the Business Case for Corporate Sustainability.
Business Strategy and the Environment 11:130–141
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https://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=business-sustainability
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Reporting 2025 Project: First Analysis Paper.
Goodwin, H, Santilli, R. (2009) Community-Based Tourism: a success? ICRT Occasional
Paper 11.[on line] Available from: https://www.icrtourism.org/documents/
OP11merged.pdf
Høgevold, N.M. & Svensson, G. (2012) "A business sustainability model: a European case study",
Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing , Vol. 27 Issue: 2, pp.142-151
Hudson, (2011). KEY SUCCESS FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL BUSINESS.
Retrieved 30 October 2016, from https://webtechman.com/blog/2011/05/21/key-
success-factors-of-sustainable-social-business/
Jenner, P. (2016). Social enterprise sustainability revisited: an international perspective.
Social Enterprise Journal; Bingley12.1 (2016): 42-60.
Jitpakdee, R., & Thapa, G. (2012). Sustainability analysis of ecotourism on Yao Noi island,
Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 17(3), 301–325.
Kallayanamitra, C. (2011). Sustainability of community-based tourism: Comparison of Mae Kam
Pong Village at Chiang Mai Province and Ta Pa Pao Village at Lamphun Province. Paper
presented at the Fifth International Students Forum, August 24–28, Oita, Japan.
Retrieved April 15, 2013 from https://www.ec.oita-u.ac.jp/isf2011/pdf/proceedings-37–
56.pdf.
Kezar, A. (2001). Understanding and facilitating organizational change in the 21st century
Recent research and conceptualizations. Washington DC ASHE-ERIC Higher Education
Reports.
Kontogeorgopoulos, N., Churyen, A., & Duangsaeng, V. (2014). Success factors in
community based tourism in Thailand: The role of luck, external support, and local
leadership. Tourism Planning & Development, 11(1), 106-124.
Lawrimore B. (2015). The 5 Key Success Factors Of Business – No. 3: Operations.
Retrieved 13 October 2016, from https://www.linkedin.com/.../5-key-success- factors-business-3-operations-buck-lawrimor.
Lun, L. M., Pechlaner, H., & Volgger, M. (2016). Rural Tourism Development in Mountain
Regions: Identifying Success Factors, Challenges and Potentials. Journal of Quality
Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 17(4), 389-411
Mason, P. (2008). Tourism impact, planning and management. Hungary: Butterworth-
Heinemann.
Nguangchaiyapoom, S., Yongvanit, S., & Sripun, M. (2012). Community-based tourism
management of Ban Prasat Non Sung district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand.
Humanities & Social Sciences, 29(3), 191-207
Nielsen C. and Carranza,I.D. (2012) Networks for Social Enterprise: Applying a systems
perspective to case studies in Latin America. International Journal of Business and
Social Research (IJBSR), Volume -2, No.-6, November 2012
Nitikasetsoontorn, S. (2015). The Success Factors of Community-Based Tourism in Thailand.
NIDA Development Journal Vol. 55 No. 2/2015 Pp.24-58
Nunthasiriphon, S. (2015). Community-based Social Marketing Behavioural Goals for Promoting
Community-based Tourism. Journal of Humanity and Social Sciences Burapha
University. Vol. 23. No.43, Pp. 273-293.
Root N. G., (2017). Three Key Success Factors in a Business Area. Retrieved 13 October
2016, from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/three-key-success-factors-business-area-
2696.html
Santilli R. (2008). “Community-Based Tourism: an Assessment of the Factors for Success”.
University of Greenwich unpublished.
Satarat, N. (2010). Sustainable Management of Community-Based Tourism in Thailand.
Ph.D. Dissertation (Development Administration), School of Public Administration
National Institute of Development Administration.
Sitikarn, B. (2014). Tourism Development Planning: From Concept to Practice: Chiang Mai.
Santipab Pack-Print Co.,Ltd [In Thai]
Suansri, P., & Richards, P. (2013). A case study of community-based tourism in Thailand. In
World Tourism Organization (Ed.), Domestic tourism in Asia and the pacific (pp.
529–551). Madrid: UNWTO
Suriya, K. (2010). Impact of community-based tourism in a village economy in Thailand:
An analysis with VCGE model. Paper presented at EcoMod2010 Conference,
Istanbul, Turkey. [Online] Available from
https://ecomod.net/sites/default/files/document-conference/ecomod2010/1302.pdf
The Secretariat of the House of Representatives Acting for National Reform Steering
Assembly (2015). Special Agenda 1: Social Enterprise. National Reform Steering
Assembly. Bangkok. The Secretariat of the House of Representatives Press
The ASEAN Secretariat. (2016). ASEAN Community Based Tourism Standard. Cambodian
Ministry of Tourism, Phnom Penh.
Whelan, T and Fink, C (2016) The Comprehensive Business Case for Sustainability. Harvard
Business Review. October 21, 2016.
Weppen, J.D. & Cochrane, J. (2012): Social enterprises in tourism: an exploratory study of
operational models and success factors, Journal of Sustainable Tourism,20:3, 497-511






Alisha, A. (2016). Mobilising Knowledge: Determining key elements for success and pitfalls
in developing Community Based Tourism. Sheffield Business School Research
Institute.
Boonratana, R. (2010). “Community-based tourism in Thailand: The need and justification
for an operational definition”. Kasetsart Journal: Social Sciences, 31(2), 280-289.
Breugel, L.V. (2013). Community-based tourism: Local participation and perceived
impacts A comparative study between two communities in Thailand. Master
Thesis, Radboud University Nijmegen. [Online] Available from
www.ru.nl/publish/pages/657546/hesis_liedewij_van_breugel_scs.pdf.
Business Dictionary, (n.a.). Key success factors. Retrieved 12 October 2016,
fromhttps://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/key-success-factors.html
DIT (2002) Social Enterprise: A Strategy For Success. Department Of Trade And
Industry, London.
Dolezal, C. (2011). Community-based tourism in Thailand: (Dis-) illusions of authenticity
and the necessity for dynamic concepts of culture and power. ASEAS: Austrian
Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 4(1), 129–138.
Dyllick T., Hockerts K. (2002). Beyond the Business Case for Corporate Sustainability.
Business Strategy and the Environment 11:130–141
Financial Times. (2017). Definition of business sustainability. Retrieved from
https://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=business-sustainability
GRI (2015), Sustainability and Reporting Trends in 2025 – Preparing for the Future - GRI’s
Reporting 2025 Project: First Analysis Paper.
Goodwin, H, Santilli, R. (2009) Community-Based Tourism: a success? ICRT Occasional
Paper 11.[on line] Available from: https://www.icrtourism.org/documents/
OP11merged.pdf
Høgevold, N.M. & Svensson, G. (2012) "A business sustainability model: a European case study",
Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing , Vol. 27 Issue: 2, pp.142-151
Hudson, (2011). KEY SUCCESS FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL BUSINESS.
Retrieved 30 October 2016, from https://webtechman.com/blog/2011/05/21/key-
success-factors-of-sustainable-social-business/
Jenner, P. (2016). Social enterprise sustainability revisited: an international perspective.
Social Enterprise Journal; Bingley12.1 (2016): 42-60.
Jitpakdee, R., & Thapa, G. (2012). Sustainability analysis of ecotourism on Yao Noi island,
Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 17(3), 301–325.
Kallayanamitra, C. (2011). Sustainability of community-based tourism: Comparison of Mae Kam
Pong Village at Chiang Mai Province and Ta Pa Pao Village at Lamphun Province. Paper
presented at the Fifth International Students Forum, August 24–28, Oita, Japan.
Retrieved April 15, 2013 from https://www.ec.oita-u.ac.jp/isf2011/pdf/proceedings-37–
56.pdf.
Kezar, A. (2001). Understanding and facilitating organizational change in the 21st century
Recent research and conceptualizations. Washington DC ASHE-ERIC Higher Education
Reports.
Kontogeorgopoulos, N., Churyen, A., & Duangsaeng, V. (2014). Success factors in
community based tourism in Thailand: The role of luck, external support, and local
leadership. Tourism Planning & Development, 11(1), 106-124.
Lawrimore B. (2015). The 5 Key Success Factors Of Business – No. 3: Operations.
Retrieved 13 October 2016, from https://www.linkedin.com/.../5-key-success- factors-business-3-operations-buck-lawrimor.
Lun, L. M., Pechlaner, H., & Volgger, M. (2016). Rural Tourism Development in Mountain
Regions: Identifying Success Factors, Challenges and Potentials. Journal of Quality
Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 17(4), 389-411
Mason, P. (2008). Tourism impact, planning and management. Hungary: Butterworth-
Heinemann.
Nguangchaiyapoom, S., Yongvanit, S., & Sripun, M. (2012). Community-based tourism
management of Ban Prasat Non Sung district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand.
Humanities & Social Sciences, 29(3), 191-207
Nielsen C. and Carranza,I.D. (2012) Networks for Social Enterprise: Applying a systems
perspective to case studies in Latin America. International Journal of Business and
Social Research (IJBSR), Volume -2, No.-6, November 2012
Nitikasetsoontorn, S. (2015). The Success Factors of Community-Based Tourism in Thailand.
NIDA Development Journal Vol. 55 No. 2/2015 Pp.24-58
Nunthasiriphon, S. (2015). Community-based Social Marketing Behavioural Goals for Promoting
Community-based Tourism. Journal of Humanity and Social Sciences Burapha
University. Vol. 23. No.43, Pp. 273-293.
Root N. G., (2017). Three Key Success Factors in a Business Area. Retrieved 13 October
2016, from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/three-key-success-factors-business-area-
2696.html
Santilli R. (2008). “Community-Based Tourism: an Assessment of the Factors for Success”.
University of Greenwich unpublished.
Satarat, N. (2010). Sustainable Management of Community-Based Tourism in Thailand.
Ph.D. Dissertation (Development Administration), School of Public Administration
National Institute of Development Administration.
Sitikarn, B. (2014). Tourism Development Planning: From Concept to Practice: Chiang Mai.
Santipab Pack-Print Co.,Ltd [In Thai]
Suansri, P., & Richards, P. (2013). A case study of community-based tourism in Thailand. In
World Tourism Organization (Ed.), Domestic tourism in Asia and the pacific (pp.
529–551). Madrid: UNWTO
Suriya, K. (2010). Impact of community-based tourism in a village economy in Thailand:
An analysis with VCGE model. Paper presented at EcoMod2010 Conference,
Istanbul, Turkey. [Online] Available from
https://ecomod.net/sites/default/files/document-conference/ecomod2010/1302.pdf
The Secretariat of the House of Representatives Acting for National Reform Steering
Assembly (2015). Special Agenda 1: Social Enterprise. National Reform Steering
Assembly. Bangkok. The Secretariat of the House of Representatives Press
The ASEAN Secretariat. (2016). ASEAN Community Based Tourism Standard. Cambodian
Ministry of Tourism, Phnom Penh.
Whelan, T and Fink, C (2016) The Comprehensive Business Case for Sustainability. Harvard
Business Review. October 21, 2016.
Weppen, J.D. & Cochrane, J. (2012): Social enterprises in tourism: an exploratory study of
operational models and success factors, Journal of Sustainable Tourism,20:3, 497-511