The Journal of Behavioral Science <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Editorial Announcement</strong> — regarding the title change of the Journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">On behalf of the editorial board, we wish to announce the change in our journal’s title name from “International Journal of Behavioral Science” to <strong>“The Journal of Behavioral Science”</strong>. From July 2018 (issue 2) the journal will publish under its original title “The Journal of Behavioral Science” that was registered with the ISSN since 2006.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Please note that the change in name does not presage any changes in the policy of our journal. We will continue to strengthen the quality of our journal by publishing the best academic works in the field of behavioral science.</p> <p><strong>About the Journal</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The&nbsp;<strong>Journal of Behavioral Science </strong>(JBS) is a peer reviewed, open access scholarly journal that has been published by the Behavioral Science Research Institute (BSRI), at Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand since 2006.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal has a focus on publishing academic works that present an inter-disciplinary content of the behavioral sciences. The journal has clear ethical policies and follows the double blind peer review process for all the submissions to the journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Our journal is <strong>indexed</strong> in national and international database for journals. While it is indexed in the Tier 1 database of the Thailand Citation Index Center (<strong>TCI</strong>), on the international front, the journal is indexed in the ASEAN Citation Index (<strong>ACI</strong>), and also included in the list of journals hosted by the prestigious <strong>EBSCO </strong>database. The JBS is also indexed in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (<strong>ESCI</strong>) hosted by the Web of Science (previously known as ISI Web of Knowledge).</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong>aim</strong> of this journal is to endow a platform for authors to publish their original academic work that seeks explanations for understanding behavior through an interdisciplinary perspective of behavioral sciences. The submitted work should reflect an integration and application of knowledge from various disciplines such as psychology, sociology, health, management and others, to address the contemporary issues.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors may submit their work in the form of research papers, academic articles, and book reviews, which highlight novel contributions to behavioral science knowledge and a strong research methodology.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>ISSN</strong>: 1906-4675<br><strong>Journal Abbreviation</strong>: JBS<br><strong>Start Year</strong>: 2006<br><strong>Language</strong>: English<br><strong>Issues per year</strong>: 2 issues (in January and July)</p> Behavioral Science Research Institute, Srinakharinwirot University en-US The Journal of Behavioral Science 1906-4675 Gratitude, Gratitude Intervention and Well-being in Malaysia <p>Gratitude has generally been neglected by psychologists due to the emphasis on the medical model. A dearth of research on gratitude in Malaysia was the main impetus for these studies. Study 1 compared the gratitude scores Malaysian Malays against the US, UK, China and Japan, along an individualist-collective continuum, and results showed Malays had lower gratitude scores than the others, except for the Japanese. To increase their gratitude scores, Study 2 carried out an intervention using ‘the three good things’ exercise on 59 students over a period of 14 days. The intervention increased gratitude and life satisfaction as well as reduced distress. Furthermore, a hierarchical regression examining the effect of gratitude on well-being controlling for measures of affect and religiosity at Time 1, showed that Time-2 gratitude was only predictive of Time-2 distress. The results are discussed with respect to the collectivist culture of the Malays where negative aspects of the self are valued as a form of self-criticism to help one to constantly improve oneself. Two main implications are noted: that there are cross-cultural differences in the way gratitude is understood and expressed in the Malay culture, and that engaging in positive activity may sometimes be counterproductive to well-being.</p> Noraini Mohd Noor Nur Diana Abdul Rahman Muhammad Idlan Afiq Mohamad Zahari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-20 2018-07-20 13 2 1 18 An Action Research Approach towards Development of Spirituality among Thai University Students <p>Spirituality and ethics are desirable characteristics reflecting a person’s quality, especially for university students who could become the driving force for social development in future. This research studied and developed a new approach for spiritual and ethical development in the context of Thai university students, and put this into an experiment for assessing its effectiveness in improving spirituality and ethics. The method employed was action research and the participants were 33 university students and 9 experts in spiritual development. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. The overall period taken was 18 months and a program on spiritual and ethical development (SEDP) was produced after three cyclical processes and reflection. The SEDP comprised of four modules of spiritual and ethical characteristics which students needed to develop: self-esteem and esteem for others; relationship with others; responsibility towards self, others and the environment; and planning of spiritual and ethical development and monitoring. After the trial program implementation, the participating students’ spirituality increased significantly in terms of self-esteem, esteem for others, relationships with others, responsibility to self, others, and environment, and spiritual health. The findings from the qualitative data revealed 4 emerging themes which showed that students had profound experience of spiritual development through: (1) an inner experience of spirituality, (2) an impact on connecting to oneself, (3) connecting with others, and (4) connecting to the environment. Implications for behavioral interventions and policy development were discussed.</p> Rattigorn Chongvisal Itsara Boonyarit ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-20 2018-07-20 13 2 19 37 Effects of Self-management Program on Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors among Elderly with Hypertension <p>This research aimed to evaluate whether a self-management program promoted healthy lifestyle behaviors (HLBs) and improved health outcomes among Thai elderly with hypertension. &nbsp;Participants were randomly allocated to either an intervention group (n=20), that received an 8-week self-management program that included home visits, or a control group (n=20).&nbsp; The data were analyzed by a chi-square analysis, a mixed-model repeated measure MANOVA, and MANCOVAs.<strong>&nbsp; </strong>There were significant differences in the mean scores of healthy lifestyle behaviors at posttest and follow-up between the two groups (<em>p &lt;</em>0.01).&nbsp; Moreover, the experimental participants showed statistically significant decrease in BMI as compared to the control group participants in posttest and follow-up (<em>p &lt;</em>0.001).&nbsp; There was a statistically significant reduction in blood pressure in the experimental participants, compared with the control participants at follow-up (<em>p &lt;</em>0.001).&nbsp; Furthermore, healthy lifestyle behaviors increased significantly in the experimental participants compared with the control participants and baseline (<em>p &lt;</em> 0.001). &nbsp;In addition, BMI and blood pressure decreased in the experimental participants compared with the control participants and baseline (<em>p &lt;</em> 0.001).&nbsp; The self-management program resulted in improved healthy lifestyle behaviors, and health outcomes among the elderly with hypertension, and has implications for health promotion.</p> Ungsinun Intarakamhang Pitchada Sutipan Wirin Kittipichai Ann Macaskill ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-20 2018-07-20 13 2 38 50 The Relationships between Affect, Emotion Regulation, and Overeating in Thai Culture <p>In this study, we explored whether the relation between affect and overeating – observed previously in individualistic cultures – would generalize to a collectivistic culture where emotion display rules differ. Focusing on a Thai population, we investigated whether: (i) dietary disinhibition may mediate the relationship between affect and overeating behavior, and whether (ii) emotion regulation would moderate these effects. To this end, 298 participants (aged 18-24 years) were recruited from universities in the Bangkok metropolitan region.&nbsp; All participants were asked to complete pen-and-paper measures of: affect, emotion regulation, dietary disinhibition, and overeating behaviors. Using a mediated-moderation analysis, we found that only negative – but not positive – affect had a direct effect on overeating behavior. This relation was mediated by participants’ dietary disinhibition. Finally, emotion regulation moderated the relationship between negative affect, disinhibition, and overeating behavior. Our findings suggest that even in collectivistic cultures, the ability to regulate emotions still serves as a protective factor against excessive food intake. These findings have implications for the development of obesity interventions inn cross-cultural settings.</p> Supalak Luadlai Jean Liu Arunya Tuicomepee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-20 2018-07-20 13 2 51 67 Job Satisfaction and Employee Engagement among Human Resources Staff of Thai Private Higher Education Institutions <p>It is clear from previous research that job satisfaction and employee engagement are critical to&nbsp;organizational success. However, the literature on the relationship of job satisfaction to employee engagement in human resources staff (HR staff) very limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the relationship of job satisfaction and employee engagement and to identify a model of job satisfaction and employee engagement among HR staff in private higher education institutions (PHEIs) in Thailand.&nbsp; A questionnaire was developed from a literature review and was administered to a sample of 220 HR staff.&nbsp; The responses were analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis. This study revealed that there is positive relationship between job satisfaction and employee engagement with a statistically&nbsp;significant direct effect. The findings of this research will be helpful in encouraging further activities to improve the job satisfaction and employee engagement of HR staff in PHEIs. It is recommended that the research methodology and the model developed should be extended to different sectors in future research.</p> Ruechuta Tepayakul Idsaratt Rinthaisong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-20 2018-07-20 13 2 68 81 The Indigenous Youth Engagement in Environmental Sustainability: Native Americans in Coconino County <p>Engaging young people in environmental sustainability is a promising approach for fostering positive development among youth and communities. The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of Native American youth engagement in environmental sustainability in Coconino County. This qualitative case study focused on how a social cognitive theory influences Native American youth engagement in environmental sustainability. The results found that personal (values and attitudes), behavioral (learnings and lifestyles), and environmental (green space and environment stewardship) were the underlying themes associated with engagement of Native American youth in environmental sustainability in Coconino County which has a relatively large Native American population. In turn, the Native American youth who were given early exposure to place-based and environmental education had a positive impact on environmental sustainability in their community. This paper offered some psychosocial and behavioral science implications as well as recommended further investigation on indigenous youth engagement in social and environmental soundness.</p> Sudarat Tuntivivat Siti Fatimah Jafar Cynthia Seelhammer Jeffery Carlson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-20 2018-07-20 13 2 81 93 Authentic Leadership and Proactive Work Behavior: Moderated Mediation Effects of Conscientiousness and Organizational Commitment <p>The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the mediating role of organization commitment in the relationship between authentic leadership and proactive work behavior, and (2) to investigate the moderating role of conscientiousness in mediating process of organization commitment. Using anonymous questionnaire survey, the sample was comprised of 375 persons working in a large public university in the north of Thailand. The SPSS Program with PROCESS macro (Model 4 and Model 8) was used to test the hypotheses regarding the mediation and the moderated mediation effects. As predicted, the results indicate that organizational commitment mediated the relationship between authentic leadership and proactive work behavior. Moreover, the direct and indirect effects of authentic leadership (through organizational commitment) on PWB are particularly strong under high compared with low levels of conscientiousness.&nbsp;</p> Chuchai Smithikrai Jeeraporn Suwannadet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-31 2018-07-31 13 2 94 106