Patterns of Element Concentrations and Heavy Metal Accumulations in Edible Seaweed, Gracilaria fisheri (Xia and Abbott) Abbott, Zhang and Xia (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) Cultivation in Southern Thailand

Main Article Content

Phi Thi Nguyen Rapeeporn Ruangchuay Chokchai Lueangthuwapranit

Abstract

Patterns of elemental concentration and heavy metal accumulation were examined in the edible seaweed, Gracilaria fisheri, cultivated in ponds located in three provinces of Southern Thailand. Seaweed, water, and sediment were collected in the dry season during the cultivation period. The amounts of elements and heavy metals in seaweed were found in the following ranges: calcium (Ca) 9.22–10.01, magnesium (Mg) 11.40–13.40, potassium (K) 1.85–23.35, sodium (Na) 1.60–4.96, copper (Cu) 1.65–2.91, manganese (Mn) 557.05–746.75, zinc (Zn) 30.15–36.60, iron (Fe) 172.95–841.23, nickel (Ni) 6.03–8.26, chromium (Cr) 1.43–2.80, cadmium (Cd) 0.08–0.13, and lead (Pb) 4.79–6.60 µg∙g-1 dry weight. None of the elements showed a relationship between levels in seaweed and in either water or sediment, but we did find relationships with other elements. Macro-elements Mg, K and Na in seaweed showed a relationship with Mg, Na and Zn concentrations in the water, and with Cu, Mn, Fe and Ni concentrations in the sediment. Apparently, micro-elements Mn and Fe in seaweed were related to Cu, Mn and Cr concentrations in the sediment. Our study indicated that the patterns of element and heavy metal concentration in seaweed, G. fisheri, were inconsistent with the patterns of those elements in its surrounding environment.

Keywords

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

1. Almela, C., M.J. Clemente, D. Velez, and R. Montoro. 2006. Total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, lead, cadmium contents in edible seaweed sold in Spain. Food Chemistry Toxicology 44: 1901-1908.

2. AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 17th ed. Arlington VA, USA. 62 pp.

3. Aziz, H.A., M.N. Adlan, and K.S. Ariffin. 2008. Heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr (III)) removal from water in Malaysia: Post treatment by high quality limestone. Bioresource Technology 99: 578–1583.

4. Baghel, R.S., C.R.K. Reddy and B. Jha. 2014. Characterization of agarophytic seaweeds from the bio refinery context. Bioresource Technology 159: 280-285.

5. Barabanova, A.O., I.P. Tischenko, V.P. Glazunov, I.M. Yakovleva, T.F. Solovyeva, N.V. Zarubina, M.G. Blokhin and I.M. Yermak, 2010. Chemical composition of polysaccharides of the red alga Tichocarpus crinitus (Tichocarpaseae) from different sites of Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 36(3): 195–200.

6. Benjama, O. and P. Masniyom. 2012. Biochemical composition and physicochemical properties of two red seaweeds (Gracilaria fisheri and G. tenuistipitata) from the Pattani Bay in Southern Thailand. Songklanakarin Journal of Science Technology 34(2): 223-230.

7. Besada, V., J.M. Andrade, F. Schultze and J.J.Gonzelez 2009. Heavy metals in edible seaweeds commercialized for human consumption. Journal of Marine Systems 75: 305-313.

8. Caliceti, M., E. Argese, A. Sfriso and B. Pavoni, 2002. Heavy metal contamination in the seaweeds of the Venice lagoon. Chemosphere 47: 443-454.

9. Chakraborty, S., T. Bhattacharya, G. Singh, and J.P. Maity. 2014. Benthic macro algae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 100: 61-68.

10. Chernova, E.N., N.K. Khristoforova and D.I. Vyshkvartsev 2002. Heavy metals in seagrasses and algae of Pos’et Bay, Sea of Japan. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 28(6): 387–392.

11. Chernova, E.N. and O.S. Sergeeva. 2008. Metal concentrations in Sargassum algae from coastal waters of Nha Trang Bay (South China Sea). Russian Journal of Marine Biology. January 34(1): 57–63.

12. Chirapart, A., J. Munkit and K. Lewmanomont. 2006. Change in yield and quality of agar from the agarophytes, Gracilaria fisheri and G. tenuistipitata var. liui cultivated in earthen ponds. Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science) 40: 529-540.

13. Chirapart, A. and K. Lewmanomont. 2004. Growth and production of Thai agarophyte cultured in natural pond using the effluent seawater from shrimp culture. Hydrobiologia 512: 117-126.

14. Gilles, R. 2013. Animals and environmental fitness: physiological and biochemical aspects of adaptation and ecology. Pergamon Press, UK. 638 pp.

15. Giusti, L. 2001. Heavy metal contamination of brown seaweed and sediments from the UK coastline between the Wear River and the Tees River. Environment International 26: 275-286.

16. Hashim, M.A. and K.H. Chu. 2004. Bio sorption of cadmium by brown, green, and red seaweeds. Chemical Engineering Journal 97: 249-255.

17. Khaled, A., A. Hessein, A.M. Abdel-Halim, and F.M. Morsy. 2014. Distribution of heavy metals in seaweeds collected along Marsa-Matrouh beaches, Egyptian Mediterranean Sea. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 40: 363-371.

18. Kozhenkova, S.I., E.N. Chernova and V.M. Shulkin. 2006. Microelement composition of the green alga Ulva fenestrata from Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 32(5): 289–296.

19. Krebs, R.E. 2003. The basics of earth science. Greenwood Press, UK. 342 pp.

20. Kumar, S., D. Sahoo and I. Levine. 2015 Assessment of nutritional value in a brown seaweed Sargassum wightii and their seasonal variations. Algal Resources 9: 117-125.

21. Lobban, C.S. and P.J. Harrison. 1994. Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA. 366 pp.

22. Malea P., A. Chtziapostolou and T. Kevrekidis. 2015. Trace element seasonality in marine macroalgae of different functional-form groups. Marine Environmental Research 103: 18-26.

23. Meneses, I. 1996. Sources of morphological variation in populations of Gracilaria chilensis Bird, McLachlan and Oliveira of Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 69: 35-44.

24. Modera-Pineiro, A., E. Pena-Vazquez and P. Bermejo-Barrera. 2012. Significance of the presence of trace and ultra-trace elements in seaweeds. In: Handbook of marine macroalgae (ed. S.K. Kim), pp. 116-170. Wiley-Blackwell, Singapore.

25. Murty, U.S. and A.K. Banerjee. 2012. Seaweeds: the wealth of oceans. In: Handbook of marine macroalgae (ed. S.K. Kim), pp. 36-44. Wiley-Blackwell, Singapore.

26. Muse, J.O., J.D. Stripeikis, F.M. Fernandez, L. d’Huicque, M.B.Tudino, C.N. Carducci, and O.E. Troccolo, 1999. Seaweeds in the assessment of heavy metal pollution in the Gulf San Jorge, Argentina. Environmental Pollution 04: 315-322.

27. Nazli, M.F. and N.R. Hashim. 2010. Heavy metal concentrations in an important mangrove species, Sonneratia caseolaris, in Peninsular Malaysia. Environment Asia 3: 50-55.

28. Neff, J.M. 2002. Bioaccumulation in marine organisms: eeffect of contaminants from oil well produced water. Elsevier, The Netherlands. 452 pp.

29. Norziah, M.H. Ching C.Y. 2000. Nutritional composition of edible seaweed Gracilaria changii. Food Chemistry 68: 69-76.

30. Rodenas de la Rocha S., F.J. Sanchez-Muniz, M. Gomez-Juaristi and M.T. Larrea-Marin. 2009. Trace elements determination in edible seaweeds by an optimized and validated ICP-MS method. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 22: 330-336.

31. Ruangchuay, R., C. Lueangthuvapranit C., and M. Nuchaikaew. 2010. Cultivation of Gracilaria fisheri (Xia and Abbott) Abbott, Zhang and Xia (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in abandoned shrimp ponds along the coast of Pattani Bay, southern Thailand. Algal Resources 3: 185-192.

32. Rybak, A., B. Messyasz, and B. Leska. 2012. Freshwater Ulva (Chlorophyta) as a bioaccumulator of selected heavy metals (Cd, Ni and Pb) and alkaline earth metals (Ca and Mg). Chemosphere 89: 1066-1076.

33. Salem, Z.B., N.Capelli, X. Laffray, G. Elise, H. Ayadi and L. Aleya. 2014. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in water, sediment and roach tissues in landfill draining system pond (Etueffont, France). Ecological Engineering 69: 25-37.

34. Sanchez-Rodriguez, I., M.A. Huerta-Diaz, E. Choumiline, O. Holguin-Quinones and J.A. Zertuche-Gonzalez. 2001. Elemental concentrations in different species of seaweeds from Loreto Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico: implications for the geochemical control of metals in algal tissue. Environmental Pollution 114: 145-160.

35. Steele, J.H., S.A. Thorpe and K.K. Turekian. 2009. Marine chemistry and geochemistry. 2nd ed. Academic Press, USA. 647pp.

36. Subba Rao, P.V., A. Vaibhav, A. Mantri, and K. Ganesan. 2007. Mineral composition of edible seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis. Food Chemistry 102: 215-218.

37. Syad, A.N., K.P. Shunmugiah and P.D. Kasi. 2013. Seaweeds as nutritional supplements: analysis of nutritional profile, physiochemical properties and proximate composition of G. acerosa and S. wightii. Biomedicine and Preventive Nutrition 3: 139-144.

38. Tiwari, B.K. and D.J Troy 2015. Seaweed sustainability: food and non-food applications. Academic Press, USA. 472 pp.

39. Vashchenko, M.A., P.M. Zhadan, T.N. Almyashova, A.L. Kovalyova and E.N. Slinko. 2010. Assessment of the contamination level of bottom sediments of Amursky Bay (Sea of Japan) and their potential toxicity. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 36(5): 359–366.

40. Wang, Z., L. Yao, G. Liu, and W. Liu. 2014. Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 107: 200-206.

41. WHO. 2000. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. 73rd ed. Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Geneva, Switzerland. 226 pp.