Thai Journal of Nursing Council วารสารสภาการพยาบาลเป็นวารสารทางวิชาการที่มีการประเมินบทความและงานวิจัย โดยผู้ทรงคุณวุฒิที่มีความเชี่ยวชาญเฉพาะสาขา (peer review) กำหนดออกรายสามเดือน ปีละ 4 ฉบับ จัดทำโดยสภาการพยาบาล เพื่อเป็นแหล่งในการเผยแพร่ผลงานวิชาการ ทั้งด้านการพยาบาลทางคลินิกและชุมชน การศึกษาพยาบาล การบริหารการพยาบาล en-US (Saipin Kasemkitwattana) (นางสาวภูษณิศา แก้วเขียว) Fri, 03 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0700 OJS 60 Sufficient Health <p>Abstract:<br>This academic article presents the concept of ‘suffcient health’ and defnes it<br>using the philosophy of suffciency economy. The defnition of suffcient health according to<br>this philosophy is based on knowledge acquired through research and it is the defnition<br>that originates from the experience, opinions, and feelings of people in the Thai sociocultural context. According to the study, suffcient health is defned as involving (i)<br>healthiness; (ii) regular health check-ups; (iii) self-care; (iv) a self-suffcient life;<br>and (v) avoidance of risks.<br>This defnition constitutes a new body of academic knowledge that could enable<br>nurses and those with an interest in suffcient health to understand its concept based on<br>the philosophy of suffciency economy and in a way consistent with the Thai socio-cultural<br>context. Nurses are, therefore, recommended to apply this knowledge as a guide to their<br>caregiving plans in order to respond to people’s healthcare needs and increase their<br>chance of having sustainable health.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Manee Arpanantikul ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Aug 2018 14:17:36 +0700 Increased Intracranial Pressure in Patients with Brain Pathology: A Dimension of Evidence-Based Nursing Practice <p>Abstract<br> Increased intracranial pressure (IICP), a major and common complication in<br>patients with a pathological condition, may lead to death or disability. IICP occurs<br>when the volumes of three intracranial components, namely, the brain, the circulatory<br>system, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), increase and exceed the brain’s capacity to<br>maintain its balance. IICP may also be caused by some nursing activities, such as putting<br>the patient in a wrong position, ineffcient suction, turning of the body, failure to regulate body temperature, and monitoring problems.<br> Therefore, it is necessary that nurses possess an accurate understanding of IICP<br>and improve their nursing quality based on empirical evidence. By monitoring and<br>evaluating patients’ symptoms, nurses would be able to timely prevent an increase in<br>intracranial pressure, help the patients to have prompt treatment and effective recovery,<br>alleviate the severity of the disease, and reduce disability risks and mortality rate.</p> ฉัตรกมล ประจวบลาภ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Aug 2018 14:38:54 +0700 Effect of Sensory Stimulation through Families’ Participation on CognitiveBehavioural Response of Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries <p>Abstract<br>Objective: To examine the effects that sensory stimulation through families’<br>participation could have on the cognitive-behavioural response of patients with severe TBI.<br>Design: One-group quasi-experimental research with a pre-test and a post-test.<br>Procedure: This study was conducted on 36 patients who were admitted to the<br>Neurosurgical Ward of Sakon Nakhon Hospital. The patients, selected by means of<br>purposive sampling, received sensory stimulation of 6 faculties, namely, vision, audition,<br>olfaction, gustation, tactility, and kinesthesia. The sensory stimulation was integrated<br>with the daily standard care provided by the researcher and the patients’ family members.<br>The research instruments consisted of (i) a sensory stimulation manual for the researcher;<br>(ii) a sensory stimulation manual for family members; and (iii) the Rancho Los Amigos<br>Scale (RLAS). The patients’ cognitive-behavioural response (CBR) was measured<br>using (i) the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS); (ii) the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness<br>(FOUR) score; and (iii) the Revised Coma Recovery Scale (CRS-R). The data were<br>analysed using descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed-Ranks test.<br> Results: This study revealed that after receiving sensory stimulation through<br>family participation, the subjects displayed a statistically signifcant increase, by p &lt; .001,<br>in their cognitive-behavioural response, the evidence being the increase in their scores<br>on GCS (from 7.14 ± 0.80 to 13.0 ± 1.82 [Z = -5.263, p = .000]), FOUR (from 7.33 ±<br>1.12 to 14.92 ± 1.56, [Z = -5.265, p = .000]), and CRS-R (from 4.47 ± 2.02 to<br>19.44 ± 4.06, [Z = -5.239, p = .000]), respectively.<br>Recommendations: It is suggested that nurses provide TBI patients with sensory<br>stimulation through family participation, by integrating it with daily standard care, in<br>order to improve and accelerate the patients’ cognitive recovery.</p> กุลพิธาน์ จุลเสวก, อัจฉรา สุคนธสรรพ์, สุภารัตน์ วังศรีคูณ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Aug 2018 15:26:06 +0700 Factors predicting delaying in preterm birth among women who received tocolysis <p>Abstract:<br>Objective: To identify predictive factors in delaying preterm birth among women<br>who received tocolysis.<br>Design: Descriptive-predictive study.<br>Procedure: This study was conducted on 153 women recruited by means of convenient<br>sampling. The participants, all of whom had spontaneous preterm labour, were treated<br>in a labour and delivery unit and were given tocolysis to inhibit preterm birth. Data were<br>collected using a personal information questionnaire, a pregnancy and maternal care<br>questionnaire, and an anxiety questionnaire. All of the questionnaires were validated<br>by experts and had a content validity index of 1.00, whilst the anxiety questionnaire had<br>a reliability index of 0.82. Hierarchical multiple regression was used for data analysis.<br>Results: The predictive factors identifed consisted of childbirth-related factors<br>(i.e., length of labour pain prior to hospitalisation, cervical effacement, duration of<br>spontaneous prior to hospitalisation, and interval of uterine contraction), a psychosocial<br>factor (i.e., anxiety), and personal factors (i.e., maternal age and pre-pregnancy BMI). These<br>factors were able to predict 78.30% of delaying in preterm birth (F = 26.80, p &lt; .001).<br>Cervical effacement was identifed as the most powerful predictive factor (Beta = -0.94,<br>t = -13.24, p &lt; .001), followed by the duration of spontaneous ruptured membranes prior<br>to hospitalisation (Beta = -0.30, t = -4.26, p &lt; .001), interval of uterine contraction<br>(Beta = 0.22, t = 3.17, p &lt; .01), and anxiety (Beta = -0.23, t = 3.21, p &lt; .01). On the<br>other hand, length of labour pain prior to hospitalisation, maternal age, and pre-pregnancy<br>BMI were not found to have signifcant predictive power (p &gt; 0.05).<br>Recommendations: Both nurses and pregnant women play an important role in<br>the delaying in preterm birth. Nurses should, therefore, advise pregnant women to<br>assess their uterine contraction and decide to go to hospital before the contraction becomes<br>more frequent that it may cause spontaneous rupture of membranes. In addition, during<br>hospitalisation, nurses should assess and plan to reduce pregnant women’s anxiety in<br>order to delay preterm birth.</p> ชมพูนุช โสภาจารีย์, อรทัย สิงห์คำ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Aug 2018 15:58:55 +0700 Effects of Warm Compresses on School-Age Children’s Perception of Pain during Venipuncture <p>Abstract<br>Objective: To compare school-age children’s perception of pain during venipuncture<br>with and without warm compresses.<br>Design: Two-group experimental research with a pre-test and a post-test.<br>Procedure: The sample was school-age children (6-15 years) treated in the paediatric<br>surgical ward at Siriraj Hospital. The children, who were required to have venipuncture<br>prior to their scheduled surgery, displayed no disease-induced pain. They were selected<br>based on the inclusion criteria and, by means of simple random sampling (lot drawing),<br>divided into an experimental group (n = 40) and a control group (n = 40). Each<br>experimental group member received a warm compress above the venipuncture site and<br>on the occiput from before to after the venipuncture, a total of 4-5 minutes. The control<br>group, on the other hand, underwent standard venipuncture. The venipuncture was carried<br>out solely by the researcher’s assistant. Data were collected using a self-report scale<br>for facial expression of pain, which was completed before and after the venipuncture,<br>and a form measuring each participant’s satisfaction with the pain-reducing warm compress.<br>The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Mann Whitney U test.<br>Results: The experimental group’s score on the level of pain after the experiment<br>(mean = 2.45, SD = 2.81) was lower than that of the control group (mean 3.57, SD =<br>2.87). The difference between the two groups was statistically signifcant (Z = -2.338,<br>p = .019).<br>Recommendations: It is suggested that nurses adopt warm compresses to reduce<br>school-age children’s pain during venipuncture.</p> Sudarat - Suwantawakup; Poungyupa Yimjaraen, Kwanchanok Downhampae ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 03 Aug 2018 09:31:56 +0700 Work-Related Stress, Social Support, and Resilience of Trauma Unit Nurses in Unrest Areas of Southern Border Provinces <p>Abstract<br>Objective: To examine relationships between work-related stress, social support,<br>and resilience of trauma unit nurses operating in unrest areas of southern Thai border provinces.<br>Design: Descriptive research.<br>Procedure: The participants were all of the trauma unit nurses (totalling 172)<br>working in the 10 most frequently unrest-threatened areas. The instruments consisted of<br>a personal information questionnaire, a work-related stress questionnaire, a social support<br>questionnaire, and a resilience scale questionnaire. The questionnaires passed a content<br>validity check by 3 experts and a reliability check using Cronbach’s alpha coeffcients,<br>yielding an outcome of .94, .91, and .96, respectively. The data were analysed using<br>descriptive statistics and Pearson Correlation Analysis.<br>Results: Overall, the participants displayed moderate mean scores on work-related<br>stress and resilience but a high mean score on social support. An intervariate analysis showed<br>2 signifcant fndings: (1) a moderate negative relationship between work-related<br>stress and resilience (r = -.34, p &lt; .001), and (2) a low positive relationship between<br>social support and resilience (r = .27, p &lt; .001).<br>Recommendations: It is recommended that relevant organisations and institutions<br>develop effective means of promoting resilience, reducing work-related stress, and<br>maintaining a high level of social support for trauma unit nurses working in unrest-affected<br>areas of the southern border provinces.</p> Wipa Sae Sia; Thitirat Dilokkunanant, Praneed Songwatthana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 03 Aug 2018 10:08:39 +0700 Secondary Data Analysis: A Follow-up of the Effectiveness of a Nutrition Counselling Programme on Nursing Staff’s Nutritional Status <p>Abstract:<br>Objective: To conduct a series of 4 follow-ups of the effects of nutrition counselling<br>programme on nursing staff’s nutritional status (based on their body mass indices, waist<br>circumferences, amounts of body fat, blood glucose levels, and blood cholesterol levels),<br>before the programme and 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after the programme.<br>Design: Descriptive study using secondary data.<br>Procedure: The participants, 129 nursing staff members, were purposively recruited<br>sampled from the ‘Clean Food, Safe from Disease’ project and assigned to a control group<br>(n = 66) and an experimental group (n = 63). After baseline data about the participants were<br>collected, both the control and experimental groups attended a 1-day nutrition education<br>programme. Next, the experimental group was given individual counselling, designed<br>according to their nutritional status to properly personalise each member’s food consumption<br>and physical exercise adjustments. Follow-ups were conducted 3 months, 6 months, and<br>1 year after the programme. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and two-way<br>ANOVA with repeated measures on one factor.<br>Results: The counselling programme signifcantly reduced the average body mass<br>index (p = .031) and blood cholesterol level (p &lt; .001) in the experimental group. At almost<br>every follow-up, the experimental group had signifcantly lower average waist circumference<br>(p &lt; .001). At 3 months and 6 months, however, no signifcant difference was detected.<br>The experimental group also showed a signifcant decrease in body fat percentage (p &lt; .001)<br>and average blood glucose level at almost every follow-up. No signifcant difference was<br>found between these periods: (i) before the programme and 3 months after the programme;<br>and (ii) 6 months and 1 year after the programme.<br>Recommendations: The results indicated that the nutrition counseling programme<br>could effectively reduce body mass index and blood cholesterol in the participating<br>nursing staff; therefore, this programme should be applied and monitored in the long<br>term to ensure greater effectiveness.</p> สิริญญา พลวัฒน์, สุจินดา จารุพัฒน์ มารุโอ, นพวรรณ เปียซื่อ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 03 Aug 2018 11:29:57 +0700 Health Conditions and Self-Care Activities of Older Caregivers Caring for Bedridden Older Adults <p>Abstract:<br>Objective: To study the health conditions and self-care activities of older caregivers<br>caring for bedridden older adults.<br>Design: Descriptive research.<br>Procedure: This study was conducted on 50 purposively sampled older caregivers<br>(60 years or above) of bedridden older adults in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. Data<br>were collected through semi-structured interviews, using (1) a general profle questionnaire;<br>(2) a health condition perception assessment questionnaire; and (3) an older caregiver’s<br>self-care ability measurement questionnaire. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics.<br>Results: The caregivers rated their health as being in a moderate condition. The<br>majority of the caregivers achieved a high average on their self-care activities. An<br>analysis by category revealed the caregivers’ high scores on developmental self-care<br>requisites and on health deviation self-care requisities, whilst their score on universal<br>self-care requisities was moderate. The most highly scored self-care activity was fnding<br>a well-ventilated area, and the least scored activity was fnding time for relaxation. In<br>addition, caring for bedridden older adults meant the older caregivers had to make a<br>greater self-care effort than before assuming this role. The older caregivers most increased<br>self-care activity was management of their stress and emotional changes, whilst their<br>most reduced self-care activity was engagement in social activities.<br>Recommendations: Based on the fndings, it is recommended that health-care<br>staff advise or support older caregivers to fnd time for relaxation and balance their own<br>self-care and their caregiving responsibilities.</p> ณัชศฬา หลงผาสุข, สุปรีดา มั่นคง, ยุพาพิน ศิรโพธิ์งาม ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 03 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0700 Effects of a Self-Care Promoting Programme on Knowledge, Self-Care Behaviours, and Blood Pressure in Persons with Essential Hypertension <p>Abstract<br>Objective: To examine the effectiveness of a self-care promoting programme on the<br>knowledge, self-care behaviours, and blood pressure in persons with essential hypertension.<br>Design: Two-group quasi-experimental research with a pre-test and a post-test.<br>Procedure: This study was conducted on a purposive sample of 64 patients treated<br>at the hypertension clinics of a hospital network in Srisaket province. Thirty-one of the patients<br>were assigned to an experimental group and the others to a control group. The experimental<br>group participated in a 10-week self-care promoting programme, which consisted of group<br>activities and telephone-mediated motivation in addition to standard care, whereas the control<br>group was given only standard care. Data were collected by means of (i) a general information<br>questionnaire; (ii) a knowledge of self-care need questionnaire; and (iii) a self-care assessment<br>form for elderly people with hypertension, along with blood pressure measuring. The data<br>were analysed using a paired t-test, independent t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA.<br>Results: The 64 subjects, whose ages ranged between 45 and 60 years, consisted<br>of 46 females and 18 males. After completing the programme, (1) the experimental group’s<br>average scores on knowledge and self-care behaviours were signifcantly higher than before<br>programme participation and than those of the control group; (2) the experimental group’s<br>average systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were signifcantly lower than those<br>of the control group; and (3) the programme and its duration jointly influenced the experimental<br>group’s systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels, which decreased signifcantly between<br>week 1 and weeks 4, 8, and 12, with no signifcant difference detected in weeks 8 and 12.<br>Recommendations: The fndings could provide baseline data for nurses to devise<br>a plan to promote self-care activities for people with hypertension. This programme can<br>be used to raise an awareness of the signifcance of self-care and to encourage people with<br>hypertension to participate in self-care activities, to the extent that their self-care behaviours<br>becomes consistent and adequate, which could control their blood pressure to a normal level.</p> อรทัย หงษ์ศิลา, รองศาสตราจารย์ ดร. มณี อาภานันทิกุล, ผู้ช่วยศาสตราจารย์ ดร. พรทิพย์ มาลาธรรม ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 03 Aug 2018 14:44:09 +0700