Main Article Content
The impact of the use of various fertilizers namely; organic fertilizer (manure), commercial biofertilizer (pellets), and chemical fertilizer, on soil and water quality including the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grain was investigated. In addition, the cost of and rice yield from different types of fertilizer have been compared. The results of heavy metals found in soil samples from the 4 periods of sampling are in the range of 2.12-15.30 and 211.78-334.00 mg/kg for arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn), respectively. Experimental field used manure was accumulated As and Mn less than every practices when the rice before harvesting. In water samples, only Mn was detected and was in the range of 0.10-0.81 mg/l. Soil pH was found to be 4.79-6.62 and water pH was 6.21-8.37. The levels of nitrate (No3-) and phosphate (PO43-) found in soil samples were 3.34-10.26 and 30.07-55.36 mg/kg, respectively. For the water samples (No3-) and (PO43-) were 0.20-0.95 and 0.25-0.67 mg/l., respectively. The organic material (OM) in soil was 1.67-2.62 percent. The water quality parameters were; DO 4.95-9.82 mg/l, BOD 1.61-25.76 mg/l., SS 17.50-992.67 mg/l, EC 99.40-705.33 us/cm. Arsenic was not found to accumulate in rice grain. However, Mn was found in the range of 55.97-58.83 and 84.63-137.00 mg/kg in the rice grain and rice husk, respectively. The costs associated with each of the four experiments were 1,412 1,802 1,824 and 1,881 bath/rai, respectively. The rice harvested from each experiment was 604, 510, 496 and 758 kg/rai. However, using manure as the fertilizer was found to be the most cost-effective method and it has the least effect on the quality of soil and water. Therefore, there should be further studies conducted to refine such notion in order to achiever more accurate information.
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