Flammability of Polystyrene with Multiple Flame Retardants: Preparation, Characterization, and Response Surface Methodology Optimization

Main Article Content

Florencio D. de los Reyes Magdaleno R. Vasquez Mark Daniel G. de Luna Peerasak Paoprasert

Abstract

The flammability of polystyrene (PS), compounded with silica nanoparticles (SiNPs), 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenantrene-10-oxide (DOPO), and melamine as flame retardants was studied. Surface modification of SiNPs using three silane coupling compounds, 3-aminopropytriethoxy silane (APTES), phenyltriethoxy silane (PHTES), and n-propyltriethoxy silane (PTES), was performed. The flammability of PS, characterized by the limiting oxygen index (LOI), reduced when the flame retardants were added. DOPO exhibited the best flame retardant property, increasing the LOI value of the PS by 42.4 %. A quadratic model for LOI was developed using D-optimal design with the percentage loading of APTES-modified SiNPs, DOPO, and melamine as the independent variables. The response surface methodology was used to explain the synergistic effects of these flame retardants. As the percentage loadings were increased, the observed increase in the LOI value was attributed to both the main effects and interaction effects of the flame retardants. 


Keywords: rice husk; silica nanoparticle; polystyrene; flame retardant; surface modification

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
วิทยาศาสตร์กายภาพ
Author Biographies

Florencio D. de los Reyes

Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines

Magdaleno R. Vasquez

Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines

Mark Daniel G. de Luna

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines

Peerasak Paoprasert

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Rangsit Centre, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand

References

Adam, F., Andas, J. and Rahman, I.A., 2011, The Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt-Rice Husk Silica Nanoparticles, Open Colloid Sci. J. 4: 12-18.
Adam, F., Appaturi, J.N. and Iqbal, A., 2012, The utilization of rice husk silica as a catalyst: Review and recent progress, Catalysis Today 190: 2-14.
Alshatwi, A.A., Athinarayanan, J. and Periasamy, V.S., 2015, Biocompatibility assessment of rice husk-derived biogenic silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 47: 8-16.
Bar, M., Alagirusamy, R. and Das, A., 2015, Flame retardant polymer composites, Fibers Polym. 16: 705-717.
Bera, O., Pilić, B., Pavličević, J., Jovičić, M., Holló, B., Szécsényi, K.M. and Špirkova, M., 2011, Preparation and thermal properties of polystyrene/silica nanocom-posites, Thermochimica Acta 515: 1-5.
Beyer, G., 2002, Nanocomposites: A new class of flame retardants for polymers, Plast. Addit. Compound. 4: 22-28.
Blitz, J.P., Gun'ko, V.M., Samala, R. and Lawrence, B.A., 2014, Mixed bifunctional surface-modified silicas using tethered aminofunctional silane catalysts, Colloids Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspect. 462: 1-8.
Fromme, H., Becher, G., Hilger, B. and Völkel, W., 2016, Brominated flame retardants – Exposure and risk assessment for the general population, Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 219: 1-23.
Hariharan, V. and Sivakumar, G., 2013, Studies on synthesized nanosilica obtained from bagasse ash, Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res. 5: 1263-1266.
Hashemi-Nasab, R. and Mirabedini, S.M., 2013, Effect of silica nanoparticles surface reatment on in situ polymerization of styrene-butyl acrylate latex, Prog. Organ. Coat. 76: 1016-1023.
He, C., Zhang, G., Pan, H., Zhang, X., Dang, J. and Chen, C., 2016, Research progress on smoke suppression of halogen free flame retardant polymer materials, Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics 33: 72-77.
Horacek, H. and Grabner, R., 1996, Advantages of flame retardants based on nitrogen compounds, Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 54: 205-215.
Idumah, C.I., Hassan, A. and Affam, A.C., 2015, A review of recent developments in flammability of polymer nanocomposites, Rev. Chem. Eng. 31: 149-177.
Janaun, J., Safie, N.N. and Siambun, N.J. In Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of carbon-silica hybrid catalyst from rice straw, AIP Conference Proceedings, 2016.
Joshi, M., Thakare, V. and Pal, S.K., 2005, Polymer clay nanocomposites for coated textile applications: A perspective, Man-Made Text. India 48: 448-455.
Kaur, T., Singh, G.P., Kaur, G., Kaur, S. and Gill, P.K., 2016, Synthesis of biogenic silicon/silica (Si/SiO2) nanocom-posites from rice husks and wheat bran through various microorganisms, Materials Research Express 3.
Khobragade, P.S., Hansora, D.P., Naik, J.B. and Chatterjee, A., 2016, Flame retarding performance of elastomeric nanocompo-sites: A review, Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 130: 194-244.
Kiliaris, P. and Papaspyrides, C.D., 2010, Polymer/layered silicate (clay) nanocompo-sites: An overview of flame retardancy, Prog. Polym. Sci. (Oxford) 35: 902-958.
Law, C. and Exley, C., 2011, New insight into silica deposition in horsetail (Equisetum arvense), BMC Plant Biology 11.
Le, V.H., Thuc, C.N.H. and Thuc, H.H., 2013, Synthesis of silica nanoparticles from Vietnamese rice husk by sol-gel method, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 8: 58.
Levchik, S.V. and Weil, E.D., 2006, A review of recent progress in phosphorus-based flame retardants, J. Fire Sci. 24: 345-364.
Ma, H., Song, P. and Fang, Z., 2011, Flame retarded polymer nanocomposites: Development, trend and future perspective, Sci. China Chem. 54: 302-313.
Ou, Y.X., Zhao, Y. and Li, X.M., 2009, Flame retardant mechanism of polymer/ montmorillonite nanocomposites, Gaofenzi Cailiao Kexue Yu Gongcheng/Polym. Materials Science and Engineering 25.
Saleh, N.J., Ibrahim, R.I. and Salman, A.D., 2015, Characterization of nano-silica prepared from local silica sand and its application in cement mortar using optimization technique, Adv. Powder Technol. 26: 1123-1133.
Salmeia, K.A. and Gaan, S., 2015, An overview of some recent advances in DOPO-derivatives: Chemistry and flame retardant applications, Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 113: 119-134.
Sun, Y., Zhang, Z., Moon, K.S. and Wong, C.P., 2004, Glass transition and relaxation behavior of epoxy nanocomposites, J. Polym. Sci. B: Polym. Phys. 42: 3849-3858.
Wang, W., Martin, J.C., Fan, X., Han, A., Luo, Z. and Sun, L., 2012, Silica Nanoparticles and Frameworks from Rice Husk Biomass, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4: 977-981.
Wang, W., Martin, J.C., Zhang, N., Ma, C., Han, A. and Sun, L., 2011, Harvesting silica nanoparticles from rice husks, J. Nanopart. Res. 13: 6981-6990.