Examining Belief Attitude and Effectiveness Relations on Banner Advertising of Thai Online Travel Agencies

Main Article Content

Kamonthat Nualanan

Abstract

This empirical research examined the effects of Thai online travel agencies’ banner advertising belief factors on inbound tourists’ attitude toward banner advertising and the effects of inbound tourists’ attitude toward banner advertising on banner advertising effectiveness. The study focused on inbound tourists. The convenience sampling technique was applied. This study employed a questionnaire survey to collect data. The results of structural equation modeling could partially confirm the belief-attitude-effectiveness relations for Thai online travel agencies’ banner advertising from the perspective on inbound tourists. The empirical results from this study indicated that the features and contents of banner advertising in terms of hedonic/pleasure, credibility, social role and image, good for economy and interactivity could lead to favorable attitude toward banner advertising while the irritation feature of banner advertising could create unfavorable attitude toward banner advertising. Furthermore, favorable attitude toward banner advertising was likely to increase effectiveness of banner advertising. The empirical study provided evidence of the direct relationships between attitude toward banner advertising and purchase intention (β = 0.74) and evidence of banner advertising effectiveness and purchase intention (β = 0.70). This study suggested guidelines to develop banner advertising for effective online advertising tasks to drive business survival in the international tourism marketplace.

Keywords

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Research Articles-Academic Articles
Author Biography

Kamonthat Nualanan

Integrated Tourism Management, Graduate School of Tourism Management, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA)

References

Aaker, D. A., & Bruzzone, D. E. (1985). Causes of irritation in advertising. Journal of Marketing. 49(Spring). 47-57.

Abernethy, A. M. (1991). Physical and Mechanical Avoidance of Television Commercials: An Exploratory Study of Zipping, Zapping and Leaving, in Proceedings of the Atnerican Acadenzyof Aduertising, Rebecca Holman, ed., Reno, NV: The American Academy of Advertising. 223-231.

Adler, R. B., & Rodman, G. (2000). Understanding human communication. 7th ed. Ft Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes. 50(2). 179-211.

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. :Prentice-Hall.

Alba, J. W., Hutchinson, J. W., & Lynch, J. G. (1991). Memory and decision making. Handbook of consumer behavior. 1-49.

Alwitt, L. F., & Prabhakar, P. R. (1992). Functional and belief dimensions of attitudes to television advertising. Journal of Advertising Research. 32. 30-42.

Andersen, K. E. (1972). Introduction to Communication Theory and Practice. California: Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.

Andrews, J.C. (1989). The Dimensionality of Beliefs toward Advertising in General. Journal of Advertising. 18(1). 26–35.

Baltas, G. (2003). Determinants of internet advertising effectiveness: an empirical study. International Journal of Market Research. 45(4). 505–513.

Barksdale, H. C., & Darden, W. R. (1972). Consumer attitudes toward marketing and consumerism. Journal of Marketing. 36(4). 28-35.

Bauer, R. A., & Greyser, S. A. (1968). Advertising in America: The Consumer View. Boston: Harvard University.

Bearden, W. O., Netemeyer, R. G., & Teel, J. E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research. 473-481.

Belch, G., & Belch, M. (2007). Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective. 7th ed. California: McGraw-Hill.

Bendixen, H. J. (1993). Kontrol med smitstoffer ved recyclering af biomasse. [Control of pathogens by recycling of biomass]. Dansk Veterinaertidskrift.76. 86–99.

Berry, L. L., & Clark, T. (1986). Four Ways to Make Services More Tangible. Business. October- November. 53-54.

Bezjian-Avery, A., Calder, B. & Iacobucci, D. (1998). New media interactive advertising vs. traditional advertising. Journal of Advertising Research. 38 (4). 23-32.

Bharawaj, S. G., Varadarjan, P. R., & Fahy, J. (1993). Sustainable competitive advantage in service industries: A conceptual model and research propositions. Journal of Marketing. 57. 83-99.

Bhat, S., Bevans, M., & Sengupta S. (2002). Measuring users’ web activity to evaluate and enhance advertising effectiveness. Journal of Advertising. 31. 97-106.

Brown, S.P. & Stayman, D.M. (1992). Antecedents and Consequences of Attitude towards the Ad: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Consumer Research. 19(6). 34-51.

Bruner, G. C., & Kumar, A. (2005). Applying T.A.M. to consumer usage of handheld Internet devices. Journal of Business Research.58(5). 553–558.

Bruner, G. C. & Kumar, A. (2005). Applying T.A.M. to consumer usage of handheld Internet devices. Journal of Business Research. 58 (5). 553–558.

Buhalis, D. & Licata, M. C. (2002). The Future of E-tourism Intermediaries. Tourism Management. 23 (3). 20-38.

Burke, James F. & Gitelson, Richard. (1990). Conversion Studies: Assumptions, Accuracy and Abuse. Journal of Travel Research. 28 (3). 46-51.

Burke, M., Hornof, A., Nilsen, E., & Gorman, N. (2005). High-cost banner blindness: Ads increase perceived workload, hinder visual search, and are forgotten. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI). 12(4). 423-445.

Burns, K.S. (2003). Attitude Toward the Online Ad Format: A Reexamination of the Attitude Toward the Ad Model in an Online Advertising Context. Ph.D. Dissertation. Unpublished. University of Florida.

Chaiparsit, K., Jariangprasert, N., Chomphunut, A., Naparat, D. & Jaturapataraporn, J. (2011). Tourist Expectations toward Travel and Tourism Websites In Thailand. International Business & Economics Research Journal. 10(3). 41-50.

Chan, A., Dodd, J., & Stevens, R. (2004). The efficacy of pop-ups and the resulting effect on brands. White Paper by Bunnyfoot Universality. Jan1. http://www.bunnyfoot.com/bunnyfoot_popup.pdf.

Chatterjee, P., Hoffman, D, L., & Novak, T, P. (2003). Modeling the Clickstream: Implications for Web-Based Advertising Efforts. Marketing Science. 22(4). 520-541.

Chen, C. (2008). Identifying significant factors influencing consumer trust in an online travel site. Information Technology & Tourism. 8(3). 197-214.

Chiplin, B., & Sturgess, B. (1981). Economics of Advertising. 2nd ed. East Sussex: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Cho, C. H., & Leckenby, J. D. (1999). Interactivity as a measure of advertising effectiveness. In Proceedings of the American Academy of Advertising (pp. 162-179). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida.

Cho, C.H. (2003). Factors influencing clicking of banner ads on the WWW. CyberPsychology & Behavior. 6. 201-215.

Choi, S. M., & Rifon, N. J. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of web advertising credibility: A study of consumer response to banner ads. Journal of Interactive Advertising. 3(1). 12-24.

Corvi, E., & Bonera, M. (2010). The coding process evaluation in the measurement of advertising effectiveness. In Global Business Conference (pp. 11-21). Innovation Institute.

Cutler, B.D., & Javalgi, R.G. (1993). Analysis of print ad features: service versus products. Journal of Advertising Research. 33(March). 62-69.

Dann, G. (1977). Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research (4). 184-194.

Danaher, P.J., & Mullarkey, G.W. (2003). Factors affecting online advertising recall: A study of students. Journal of Advertising Research. 43(3). 252-267.

De Pelsmacker, P., & Van den Bergh, J. (1998). Advertising Content and Irritation: A Study of 226 TV Commercials. Journal of International Consumer Marketing. 10(4). 5-28.

Dionyssopoulou, P., & Stafylakis, G. (2007). Actions for the promotion and advertising of tourism in national level and definition of their impact. Management of International Business & Economic System. 1(1). 96-111.

Doolin, B. B., Burgess, L. & Cooper, J. L. (2002). Evaluating the use of the Web for Tourism Marketing: A case study from New Zealand. Tourism Management. 23 (5). 557-561.

Doss, S. (2011). The transference of brand attitude: the effect on the celebrity endorser. Journal of Management and Marketing Research. 7(1). 58-70.

Dreze, X., & Hussherr, F. (2003). Internet Advertising: Is Anybody Watching?. Journal of Interactive Marketing.17(4). 8-23.

Dubinsky, A. J., & Hensel, P. J. (1984). Marketing student attitudes toward advertising: implications for marketing education. Journal of Marketing Education. 6(2). 22-26.

Ducoffe, R. H. (1996). Advertising value and advertising on the web. Journal of Advertising Research. 36(5). 21-35.

Edwards, S. M., Li, H. & Lee, J.-H. (2002). Forced exposure and psychological reactance: Antecedents and consequences of the perceived intrusiveness of pop-up ads. Journal of Advertising. 31 (3). 83-95.

Eighmey, J., & McCord, L. (1998). Adding value in the information age: Uses and gratifications of sites on the World Wide Web. Journal of business research. 41(3). 187-194.

Eskin, G. J., & Baron, P. H. (1977). Effects of price and advertising in test-market experiments. Journal of Marketing Research. 499-508.

Faber, R. J., Lee, M., & Nan, X. (2004). Advertising and the consumer information environment online. American Behavioral Scientist. 48(4). 447-466.

Fisk, R. P., Grove, S. J., & John, J.(2000). Services Marketing Self-Portraits: Introspections, Reflections, and Glimpses from the Experts. Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association.

Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley

Fu T., Nelson K., Lai, Michael, TH. & Law, R. (2010). Measuring e-service quality for online travel agencies. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 27 (3). 306–323

Gaziano, C., & McGrath, K. (1986). Measuring the concept of credibility. Journalism Quarterly. 63(3). 451-462.

George, W. R., & Berry, L. L. (1981). Guidelines for the Advertising of Services. Business Horizons. 24(4). 52-56.

Goldsmith, R. E., Lafferty, B. A., & Newell, S. J. (2000). The impact of corporate credibility and celebrity credibility on consumer reaction to advertisements and brands. Journal of Advertising. 29(3). 43-54.

Goldsmith, R.F. & Lafferty, B.A. (2002). Consumer response to Web sites and their influence on advertising effectiveness. Internet Research Electronic Networking Application and Policy. 12(4). 318-328.

Gong, W., & Maddox, L. M. (2003). Measuring web advertising effectiveness in China. Journal of Advertising Research. 43(1). 34-49.

Gresham, L. G., & Shimp, T. A. (1985). Attitude toward the advertisement and brand attitudes: A classical conditioning perspective. Journal of Advertising.14(1). 10-49.

Gretzel, U., Yuan, Y-L & Fesenmaier, D.R. (2000). Preparing for the new economy: advertising strategies and change in destination marketing organizations. Journal of Travel Research. 39 (2). 146–156.

Grunert, K. 1986. TV Advertising, Product Preferences and Consumer Socialization: A German Perspective. In: S. Ward, T. Robertson and R. Brown (eds.), Commercial Television and European Children. Gower: Hants.

Grunert, K. G. 1986. Cognitive determinants of attribute information usage. Journal of economic psychology. 7(1). 95-124.

Haghirian, P., Madlberger, M., & Tanuskova, A. (2005). Increasing Advertising Value of Mobile Marketing - An Empirical Study of Antecedents. In Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2005). Hawaii, USA.

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Henriksson, R. (2005). Semantic web and e-tourism, working paper. Helsinki University Available at http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/u/glinskih/semanticweb/semantic_web_and_E-Tourism.pdf.

Hill, Donna J., & Gandhi, N. (1992). Services Advertising: A Framework to Its Effectiveness. Journal of Services Marketing. 6(Fall). 63-76.

Hoffman, K.D., & Bateson, J.E. (2002). Essentials of Services Marketing: Concepts, Strategies, and Cases. 2nd ed. Harcourt College Publishers.

Hoffman, D., & Novak, T. (199). A new marketing paradigm for electric commerce. The Information Society. 13(1). 13-54.

Hugstad, P., Taylor, J. W., & Bruce, G. D. (1987). The effects of social class and perceived risk on consumer information search. Journal of Services Marketing. 1. 47–52.

Hummon, D. M. (1988). Tourist worlds: tourist advertising, ritual, and American culture. The Sociological Quarterly. 29 (2). 179-202.

Internet Advertising Bureau. (1998). Online advertising effectiveness study. [Announcement].
http://www.mbinteractive.com/site/iab/study.html

Kak, Y. (1995). Attitudes toward advertising held by the boomers and the busters: some facts and myths. Journal of Marketing Communications. 1(1). 25-36.

Kamal, S. & Chu, S.-C. (2012). Beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours toward advertising on social media in the Middle East: a study of young consumers in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising. 7 (3). 237–259.

Kania, D. (1999). Order Up! Serving Up Targeted Banners. ClickZ, March 9, available at http://www.search.com/Articles/0309991.html (accessed March18, 2013).

Karson, E. J., & Fisher, R. J. (2005). Predicting intentions to return to the web site: extending the Dual Mediation Hypothesis. Journal of International Marketing. 19(3). 2-14.

Kim, D. J., Kim, W. G. & Han, J. S. (2007). A perceptual mapping of online travel agencies and preference attributes. Tourism Management. 28 (2). 591–603.

Kim, D.-Y., Hwang, Y.-H. & Fesenmaier, D.R. (2005). Modeling tourism advertising effectiveness. Journal of Travel Research. 44 (1). 42–49.

Kim, D.-Y., Lehto, X.Y. & Morrison, A.M. (2007). Gender differences in online travel information search: implications for marketing communications on the internet. Tourism Management. 28(2), 423–433.

Kim, J. U., Kim, W. J. & Park, S. C. (2010). Consumer perception on web advertisements and motivation factors to purchase in the online shopping. Computers in human behavior. 1208-1222.

Korgaonkar, P., Karson, E.J., & Akaah, I. (1997). Direct Marketing Advertising: the assents, the dissents, and the ambivalents. Journal of Advertising Research. 37(5). 41-55.-152.

Korgaonkar, P., Silverblatt, R., & O’Leary, B. (2001). Web advertising and Hispanics. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 18(2). 134.

Korgaonkar, P., & Wolin, L. D. (2002). Web usage, advertising, and shopping: relationship patterns. Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy. 12(2). 191-204.

Lannon, J., & Cooper, P. (1983). Humanistic advertising: a holistic cultural perspective. International Journal of Advertising. 2 (3). 195-213.

Laskey, H. A., Fox, R. J., & Clask, M. R. (1995). Investigating the impact of executional style on television commercial effectiveness. Journal of Advertising. 34(6) 9-16.

Law, R. & Bai, B. (2008). How do the preferences of online buyers and browsers differ on the design and content of travel websites?. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 20 (4). 388–400.

Law, R., Leung, K., & Wong, J. (2004). The impact of the Internet on travel agencies. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 16(2). 100-107.

Law, R., Qi, S. & Buhalis, D. (2010). Progress in tourism management: A review of website evaluation in tourism research. Tourism Management. 31(3). 297-313.

Lee, H. Y., Qu, H. & Kim, Y. S. (2007). A study of the impact of personal innovativeness on online travel shopping behavior—a case study of Korean travelers. Tourism Management. 28 (3). 886–897.

Legg, D., & Baker, J (1987). Advertising Strategies for Service Firms. in Suprenant C. ed. Add Value to Your Service. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 163-168.

Leong, F. T., & Austin, J. T. (1996). The psychology research handbook: A Guide for Graduate Students and Research Assistants. Sage Publications.

Li, H., & Bukovac, J. L. (1999). Cognitive impact of banner ad characteristics: An experimental study. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly. 76(2). 341-353.

Litvin, S., Goldsmith, R. E. & Pan, B. (2008). Electronic word-of-mouth in hospitality and tourism management. Tourism Management. 29 (3). 458–468.

Lutz, R.J., Mackenzie, S.B., & Belch, G.E. (1983). Attitude Toward the Ad as a Mediator of Advertising Effectiveness: Determinants and Consequences’, in Advances in Consumer Research. ed. Bagozzi, R. and Tybout, A. (10). 532–539.

MacInnis, D. J., & Price, L. L. (1987). The role of imagery in information processing: Review and extensions. Journal of consumer research. 473-491.

MacKenzie, S. B., & Lutz, R. L. (1989). An Empirical Examination of the Structural Antecedents of Attitude Toward the Ad in an Advertising Pretesting Context. Journal of Marketing. 53(1). 48 - 65.

MacKenzie, S. B., Lutz, R. L. & Belch, G. E. (1986). The Role of Attitude toward the Ad as a Mediator of Advertising Effectiveness: A Test of Competing Explanations. Journal of Marketing Research. 23 (5). 130-143.

Martin, L. (2004). E-innovation: Internet impacts on small UK hospitality firms. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 16(2). 82-90.

Meyer, P. (1988). Defining and measuring credibility of newspapers: Developing an index. Journalism Quarterly.65. 567–574.

McCoy, S., Everard, A., Polak, P., & Galletta, D. F. (2008). An experimental study of antecedents and consequences of online ad intrusiveness. Intl. Journal of Human–Computer Interaction. 24(7). 672-699.

McMillan, S. J., & Hwang, J. S. (2002). Measures of perceived interactivity: An exploration of the role of direction of communication, user control, and time in shaping perceptions of interactivity. Journal of Advertising. 29-42.

Mehta, A. (2000). Advertising Attitude s and Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research. 40(3). 67-72.

Mehta, A., & Purvis, S. (1995). When attitudes towards advertising in general influence advertising success. Presented in the American Advertising Academy Conference.

Mehta, A., & Purvis, S. C. (2006). Reconsidering recall and emotion in advertising. JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH-NEW YORK-. 46(1). 49.

Mehta, R., & Sivadas, E. (1995). Direct marketing on the Internet: An empirical assessment of consumer attitudes. Journal of Direct Marketing. 9(3). 21-32.

Menon, S., & Soman D. (2002). Managing the Power of Curiosity for Effective Web Advertising Strategies. Journal of Advertising. 31(3). 1-14.

Mick, D. G., & Buhl, C. (1992). A meaning-based model of advertising experiences. Journal of consumer research. 317-338.

Mitchell, A., & Olson, J. (1981). Are product attribute beliefs the only mediators of advertising effects on brand attitudes?. Journal of Marketing Research. 56. 318–332.

Moe, W.W., & Fader, P.S. (2004). Dynamic Conversion Behavior at E-commerce Sites. Management Science. 50(3). 326-335.

Moon, B. J. (2004). Consumer adoption of the internet as an information search and product purchase channel: some research hypotheses. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising. 1(1). 104-118.

Mortimer, K. (2000). Are services advertised differently? An analysis of the relationship between product and service types and the informational content of their advertisements. Journal of Marketing Communications. 6(2). 121-134.

Murphy, J. & Tan, I. (2003). Journey to nowhere? E-mail customer service by travel agents in Singapore. Tourism Management. 24. 543–550.

Murray, K. B., & Schlacter, J.L. (1990). The Impact of Services versus Goods on Consumers' Assessment of Perceived Risk and Variability. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 18(Winter). 51-65.

Nelson, P. (1974). Advertising as Information. Journal of Political Economy. 82(July/August). 729ff.

Newhagen, J., & Nass, C. (1989). Differential Criteria for Evaluating Credibility of Newspapers and TV News. Journalism Quarterly. 66(2). 277-284.

Novak, T. P., Hoffman, D. L., & Yung, Y. F. (2000). Measuring the customer experience in online environments: A structural modeling approach. Marketing science. 19(1). 22-42.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). The assessment of reliability. Psychometric theory. 3. 248-292.

Okazaki, S. 2007. Lessons learned from i-mode: What makes consumers click wireless banner ads?. Computers in Human Behavior. 23(3). 1692-1719.

O’Conner, J. & Galvin, E. (2001). Marketing in the digital edge. 2nd ed. Essex:Pearson Education.

O’Keefe, D.J. 1990. Persuasion Theory and Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Palanisamy, R. (2004). Impact of gender differences on online consumer characteristics on web-based banner advertising effectiveness. Journal of Services Research. 4(2). 45-74.

Park, Y. A., Gretzel, U. & Sirakaya-Turk, E. (2007). Measuring web site quality for online travel agencies. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 23 (1). 15–30.

Pavlou, P. A., & Steward, D. W. (2000). Measuring the Effects and Effectiveness of Interactive advertising: A Research Agenda. Journal of Interactive Advertising. 1(1). 62-78.

Pecheux, C. & Derbaix, C. (2002). Children’s reactions to advertising communication: multiple methods, moderating variables and constructs validity issues. Advances in Consumer Research. 29. 531–538.

Petrovici, D., Marinova, S., Marinov, M., & Lee, N. (2007). Personal uses and perceived social and economic effects of advertising in Bulgaria and Romania. Journal of International Marketing Review, 24(5). 539-562.

Phelps, J. E., & Hoy, M. G. (1996). The Aad‐Ab‐PI relationship in children: The impact of brand familiarity and measurement timing. Psychology & Marketing.13(1). 77-105.

Poh, D.M.H. & Adam, S. (2002). An exploratory investigation of attitude toward the Website and the advertising hierarchy of effects. In AusWeb02, the Web enabled global village: proceedings of AusWeb02, the eighth Australian World Wide Web Conference (pp. 620-631). Southern Cross University

Pollay, R., & Mittal, B. (1993). Here’s the beef: Factors, determinants, and segments in consumer criticism of advertising. Journal of Marketing. 57(3). 99–114.

Previte, J., & Forrest, E. (1998). Internet advertising: An assessment of consumer attitudes to advertising on the Internet. In Communications Research Forum, Canberra, Australia.

Purmal, K., Alam, M. K., & Zam, N. M. Z. (2013). Cephalometric norms of Malaysian adult Chinese. International Medical Journal. 20(1). 87-91.

Raman, N. V. & Leekenby, J. D. (1998). Factors affecting consumers’ web ad visits. European Journal of Marketing. 32(7/8). 737-748.

Ramaprasad, J. (2001). South Asian Students' Beliefs about and Attitude toward Advertising. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising. 23(1). 55-70.

Ramaprasad, J. & Thurwanger, M. L. (1998). South Asian students attitudes toward and beliefs about advertising: Measuring across cultures. In AEJMC Annual Conference on International Communication Division, Baltimore, MD.

Raney, A. A., Arpan, L. M., Pashupati, K., & Brill, D.A. (2003). At the movies, on the web: an investigation of the effects of entertaining and interactive web content on site and brand evaluations. Journal of Interactive Marketing. 17(4). 38-53.

Rae N & BrennanM. (1998). The relative effectiveness of sound and animation in web banner advertisements. Marketing Bulletin. 9. 76-82.

Rettie, R. (2001). An exploration of flow during Internet use. Internet research. 11(2). 103-113.

Rettie, R., Robinson, H., & Jenner, B. (2003). Does internet advertising alienate users?. Kingston Business School, Kingston University.

Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Criteria for scale selection and evaluation. Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. 1(3). 1-16.

Rosenkrans, G. (2006). Online Banner Ads and Metrics Challenges. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising. 3(3). 193-218.

Sandage, C. H., & Leckenby, J. D. (1980). Student attitudes toward advertising: Institution vs. instrument. Journal of Advertising. 9(2). 29-32.

Sathish, M., Kuma, P. & Bharat, S. B. (2011). Impacts of online advertising on sales, Journal of Marketing & Communication. 7 (1). 11–17.

Schlosser, A. E., Shavitt, S. & Kanfer, A. (1999). Survey of the Internet Users’ Attitude toward Internet Advertising. Journal of Interactive Marketing. 13 (3). 34-54.

Sherry, J. F. (1987). Advertising as a cultural system. Marketing and semiotics: New directions in the study of signs for sale. 441-461.

Steuer, J. (1992). Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence. Journal of Communication. 42(4). 73-93.

Stevenson, J. S., Bruner, G. C., II, & Kumar, A. (2000). Web page background and viewer attitudes. Journal of Advertising Research, 20(1 & 2), 29–34.

Stigler, G. J. (1961). The economics of information. The journal of political economy, 213-225.

Sun, S. & Wang, Y. (2010). Familiarities, Beliefs, Attitudes and Consumer Responses toward Online Advertising in China and the United States. Journal of Global Marketing. 23 (2). 127-138.

Telser, L. G. (1964). Advertising and competition. The Journal of Political Economy. 537-562.

Tierney, P. 2000. Internet-based evaluation of tourism website effectiveness: Methodological issues and survey results. Journal of Travel Research. 39(2). 212–219.

Vrana, V. & Zafiropoulos, Costas.C. (2006). Tourism agents’ attitudes on internet adoption: an analysis from Greece. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 18 (7). 601–608.

Vogt, C., & Fesenmaier, D. (1998). Expanding the functional information search model. Annals of Tourism Research. 25. 551-578.

Wang, K.-C., Chou, S.-H., Su, C.-J. & Tsai, H.-Y. (2007). More information, stronger effectiveness? Different group package tour advertising components on web page. Journal of Business Research. 60 (4). 382–387.

Wang, Y., & Sun, S. (2009). Examining the role of beliefs and attitudes in online advertising: A comparison between the USA and Romania. International Marketing Review. 27(1). 87-107.

Wang, Y., & Sun, S. (2010). Assessing beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral responses toward online advertising in three countries. International Business Review. 19(4). 333-344.

Wang, Y., Sun, S., Lei, W., & Toncar, M. (2009). Examining beliefs and attitudes toward online advertising among Chinese consumer. Journal of International Direct Marketing. 3(1). 52-66.

Wen, I. (2009). Factors affecting the online travel buying decision: a review. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 2 (6). 752–765.

Werner, K. (1998). Strategy and Technique of Advertising. Ellinika Grammata Publications, Athens.

Werthner, H., & Klein, S. (1999). Information Technology and Tourism – A Challenging Relationship. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Wolin, L., Korgaonkar, P., & Lund, D. (2002). Beliefs Attitudes and Behavior toward Web Advertising. International Journal of Advertising. 21(1). 87-114.

Wu, S., Wei, P. & Chen, J. (2008). Influential factors and relational structure of Internet banner advertising in the tourism industry. Tourism Management. 29. 221-236.

Yang, C.-C. (2000). Taiwanese students’ attitudes towards and beliefs about advertising. Journal of Marketing Communications. 6(3). 171–183.

Yang, C.-C. (2004). A comparison of attitudes towards Internet advertising among lifestyle segment in Taiwan. Journal of Marketing Communication. 10: 195-212.

Yi, Y. (1990). A critical review of consumer satisfaction. Review of marketing. 4(1). 68-123.

Yilmaz, Y., & Bitizti, U. (2005). Performance measurement in the value chain: manufacturing v. Tourism. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management. 55(5). 371- 389.

Yoo, C. Y., Kim, K., & Stout, P. A. (2004). Assessing the effects of animation in online banner advertising: hierarchy of effects model. Journal of Interactive Advertising. 4(2).

Young, S. (2000). Getting the Message: How the Internet Is Changing Advertising. Harvard Business School Bulletin. April. Retrived February 18, 2012 from http://workingknowledge.hbs.edu/pubexprin...%20Internet%20is%20Changing%20Advertising

Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1985). Measuring the involvement construct. Journal of consumer research. 341-352.

Zeithaml, V. A. (1981). How consumer evaluation processes differ between goods and services. Marketing of services. 9(1). 25-32.

Zeithaml, V.A., &Bitner, M.J. (2000). Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus Across the Firm. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill.

Zhang, P. (2000). The effect of animation on information seeking performance on the World Wide Web: Securing attention or interfering with primary tasks. Journal of Association for Information System. 1(1). 1-28.

Zinkhan, G. M. & Hong, J. W. (1991). Self-Concept and Advertising Effectiveness: A Conceptual Model of Congruency, Conspicuousness, and Response Mode. Advances in consumer research. 18 (1).